Unlocking Hepatitis B and C insights: exploration of risk awareness among university students in the capital twin cities of Pakistan

Illuminating HBV and HCV Knowledge in University Students


  • Seneen Noor International Center of Medical Sciences Research (ICMSR) 5900 Balcones Drive # 12581, Austin, TX 78731 United States of America
  • Elyeen Noor International Center of Medical Sciences Research (ICMSR) 5479 321-323 High Road, Chadwell Health Essex RM6 6AX, United Kingdom
  • Rizwan Uppal Islamabad Diagnostic Center (IDC), F8 Markaz, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Zahra Zahid Piracha International Center of Medical Sciences Research (ICMSR), Islamabad, Pakistan




Awareness among Students, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Pakistan, Risk factors



Background: Pakistan, a developing nation, grapples with a growing burden of Hepatitis B and C, exerting a substantial strain on the country's economy. Mitigating this challenge necessitates a robust strategy emphasizing prevention of infection by hepatitis B and C viruses.

Objective: This study aimed to assess awareness among university students in the capital twin cities of Pakistan regarding Hepatitis B/C, encompassing knowledge about risk factors, vaccination, and treatment options.

Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2023 to June 2023 in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, this research involved interviewing 1008 students from eight diverse universities. The main emphasis was on identifying areas that required intervention to mitigate the future impact of Hepatitis B and C in Pakistan.

Results: Out of 1008 students, 57.5% were identified having Hepatitis B/C as viral diseases, and 74% recognized their impact on the liver. However, only 28% were aware that these viruses could be transmitted through dental instruments and ear/nose piercing. Additionally, 38% believed transmission could occur through blood/blood products and the reuse of razors. While 56% had encountered hepatitis-related advertisements, a mere 11.6% of social science students had received the HBV vaccine.

Conclusion: While a majority of participants possessed a fundamental understanding of Hepatitis B/C as viral diseases affecting the liver, awareness regarding key risk factors for viral transmission was notably lacking. Urgent, extensive awareness programs are imperative to educate the populace on these risk factors. Moreover, local production of the HBV vaccine is essential to mitigate costs. A fundamental change in the mindset of both patients and doctors is essential to reduce the unnecessary use of injections.





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