Reference Guide

Foundation University Medical Journal adheres to the Vancouver style of referencing for publication. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and correct in-text citation. If massive corrections to the references are found to be necessary if your manuscript is accepted, FUMJ Editor reserves the right to rescind the accepted decision and reject the article.

In the main text, tables, and figure legends, References should be indicated by superscripted numbers e.g., 1 according to the order of appearance in the text and placed after punctuation. [The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.]

If you wish to cite two or more references together, place a comma between the numbers, e.g., 1, 2

If you wish to cite a series of consecutive references use a dash, e.g., 2-5
References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in the text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper.

In the reference list, Use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) for listing the references.

References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.

Manuscripts accepted for publication may be cited and should include the manuscript’s DOI if known.

Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
Do not cite uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e.,
“unpublished observation”, “personal communication”) as references.

Vancouver Style does not use the full journal name, only the commonly used abbreviation. Journal title abbreviations should be those used by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. If you are uncertain about the correct abbreviation for a journal title, please search for the journal at

If more than 1 author: give all authors' names and separate each by a comma and space.

For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add 'et al.'

Enter the author's surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop).

Book title, chapter, section title, and article – capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, and acronyms.

Presented papers, unless they are subsequently published in proceedings or peer-reviewed journals, may not be cited as references.

org may not be cited as a reference.

For most manuscripts, authors should limit references to materials published in peer-reviewed professional journals.

Also, authors should verify all references against the original documents.

The reference list is a numbered list and should be single-spaced with a one-line space between each entry.
Complete details on format and examples of Vancouver Style References are given on Journal’s website.